German or Austrian?
In addition to the above styles, there are inherent differences between the Vienna Regulators made in Austria and Germany. In part, these are the differences between clocks made by individual makers (and their apprentices), and the clocks made in Factories.
As one gets to know Vienna regulators one starts to notice specific featuresthe detail in the hands, the way the escapement is made, the way the mechanism is mounted to the back board, the use of serial numbers... It is these features that can guide one in recognizing the German from the Austrian makers. Of course, if there is Wien on the dial, this makes it real easy, even for me. Please realize that I will be speaking in generalities as I outline the differences between Viennese and German clocks. There are exceptions to everything that I will point out below.
There were more Vienna Regulators made in Germany than in Austria. But, since the German factories only began producing clocks after 1850, nearly all of the Biedermeier and earlier clocks came from Vienna or other clock-making centers like Prague, Linz, or Budapest. In general the Viennese clocks had hands with finer detail than the corresponding German hands. Viennese clocks tend to have thinner columns on the Altdeutsch clocks, tend to use more wood seat-boards/corbels, and most Viennese mechanisms have single-piece verges in their escapement.
German clocks tend to be more massive, use stouter hands, rarely use seat boards, favoring instead the four-posted key-hole mounts or the brass seat plate that slot into brass brackets attached to the back board. Mechanisms nearly always adjustable verge pallets. German clocks are typically factory-made pieces, with serial numbers and trademarks on the back plates. On the other hand, with the exception of the Remember clocks, very few Austrian clocks have markings on the back plates.
The German factories often included subsidiary seconds dials at the top of the dial. These second dials were typically installed on eighty-beat movements with thirty-tooth escape wheels. This resulted in a second hand rotating 1 1/3 times per minute, or taking 45 seconds for a revolution. The Viennese did not typically do this.
The clocks made in Germany represent the mass production that was the direct result of the industrial revolution. Gustav Becker, a noted German clock maker, introduced mass production techniques copied from American clockmakers of the time while Lenzkirch, known to be one of the best German factories, copied many of the French methods. The combined output of the German factories dwarfed the output of all of the Austrian makers. The Remember clocks are Austrias response to the Industrial Revolution. Made by the Resch Brothers (Gebrueder Resch), the clocks with the famous "Remember" trademark represented very high quality factory-made clocks: These clocks were easily on a par with the best of the German factory clocks.
Austrian clocks from individual makers reflect the best the old world apprentice system could produceclocks made by individual makers who put their names on the dial and their best workmanship and attention to detail into the clocks they produced.